Students should hand in their guide sheet and have the homework section graded in terms of comprehension of material, grammar, and persuasiveness of argument. This lesson will explore the Chinese value of xiao, or filial piety, through a discussion of selections from the Analects and Mencius and an activity based on The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Devotion. The parent-child relationship is appropriately the first of the five Confucian relationships. Grades 6-8, 9-12 Arts & Literature, Beliefs/Religion, History, Society Lesson or Unit Plan, https://china360online.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/xiao-150x100.jpg, https://china360online.org/?property=understanding-filial-piety, https://china360online.org/wp-content/themes/real-spaces/images/map-marker.png, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/ps/ps_china.htm, http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~asia/24ParagonsFilialPiety.html, http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln270/24-filial2.htm, weber.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/scriptorium/shiaw/xiao00.html, Understanding Decorative Motifs on Chinese Porcelain. In order to acknowledge this eternal debt, children must respect and serve their parents all their lives. ), which were written in a classical Chinese only scholar-officials would likely be able to read. A concept of Chinese philosophy for more than 3,000 years, xiào today entails a strong loyalty and deference to one's parents, to one's ancestors, by extension, to one's country and its leaders. Then he told a story of the events that lead to each son or daughter’s exemplary conduct. The piety of the Jewish was diverse in origins. In Confucian, Chinese Buddhist and Taoist ethics, filial piety (孝, xiào) is a virtue of respect for one’s parents, elders, and ancestors. Five Human Relations – a succinct expression of Confucian understanding of basic hierarchical human relations: Ruler – Minister The Chinese character for filial piety, xiao (孝), illustrates the term's meaning. The Xiao Jing became a classic text during the Han Dynasty (206–220), and it remained a classic of Chinese education up until the 20th century. The concept underlying the principle of filial piety is simple. Among the three, Confucianism, with its well documented social hierarchy, supported the ideals of filial piety the most. He described filial piety and argued for its importance in creating a peaceful family and society in his book, "Xiao Jing," also known as the "Classic of Xiao" and written in the 4th century BCE. The admittedly gruesome set of Twenty-Four Paragons highlights long-running philosophical issues with xiao. Definition and Main Theorists, Best Non-Political Conservative Movies of All Time, Importance of the Lotus Flower in Chinese Culture, Plato and Aristotle on the Family: Selected Quotes, The Significance of Red Envelopes in Chinese Culture, The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety (Èrshísì Xiào), Sympathy and Severity: The Father-Son Relationship in Early Medieval China, The Twenty-Four Paragons of Filial Piety: Their Didactic Role and Impact on Children's Lives, B.A., Humanities, Florida Atlantic University. 1. Asia for Educators (http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/) has many convenient PDFs with primary sources (http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/ps/ps_china.htm), including one on filial piety. In English, we use an older, Latin-based expression to name this social principle of parental respect. The text helps students understand how the Confucian tradition changed over time; whereas early philosophers were most interested in virtues that informed the self (such as ren or li), later Confucian adherents promoted virtues that benefited the family or state (particularly xiao). Filial piety - This is respect and veneration that the junior members of society must exercise toward the senior ones. ON FILIAL PIETY Introduction Confucius (the Latinized version of Kong Fuzi, “master Kong”) or, to call him by his proper name, Kong Qiu (551-479 BCE) lived during the time when the Zhou kingdom had disintegrated into many de facto independent feudal states … http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~asia/24ParagonsFilialPiety.html Other collections followed. This […], This lesson uses a poem by well-known Chinese poet Du Fu to illustrate the aesthetic principles of regulated verse and parallelism in Chinese poetry that […], In this lesson, students will learn about 1940s Shanghai by reading and analyzing Eileen Chang’s short story “Sealed Off”. Acts of filial piety include obeying one's parent's wishes, taking care of them when they are old, and working hard to provide them with material comforts, such as food, money, or pampering. Now filial piety is the root of all virtue, and the stem out of which grows all moral teaching. One such issue is the relationship between xiao and another Confucian tenet, ren (love, benevolence, humanity); another asks what is to be done when honor to the family contrasts with honor to the laws of society? The Master said, “It was filial piety. Filial generally means “relating to a son or daughter” or “concerning a parent-child relationship.” Piety, here, is “dutiful respect.” After Confucius, the classic text about filial piety is The Twenty-Four Paragons of Filial Piety, written by the scholar Guo Jujing during the Yuan dynasty (between 1260–1368). The familial virtues are not only the root of ren but also the basis of a stable social and political order. I use the term „earl Confucianismy " for marking the pre-Qin Confucianism, Every generation implicitly controls the next. Lu Xun (1881–1936), China's acclaimed and influential writer, criticized filial piety and stories like those in the Twenty-Four Paragons. In general, filial piety requires children to offer love, respect, support, and deference to their parents and other elders in the family, such as grandparents or older siblings. The character xiao is comprised of an upper component representing age and a lower component representing child, indicating that the child supports and succeeds the parent. The family is the building block of society, and as such the hierarchical system of respect also applies to one's rulers and one's country. The Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE) is most responsible for making xiao a pivotal part of society. These tales were more widely known than the Confucian classics (i.e. He selected twenty-four such paragons, and penned a verse to eulogize each authentic account of filial practice. Sit down again, and I will explain the subject to you. Our bodies – to every hair and bit of skin – are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to … In particular, filial piety is assumed to have a distinct and far-reaching re-ligious significance that cannot be found in any other Confucian values (Taylor 1990). Filial piety (xiao) is the core pillar of Confucian ethics (Ho, 1986). Stories about exemplary filial conduct abound in Chinese history. Others in the movement condemned xiao as the source of all evil, "turning China into a big factory for the production of obedient subjects." The book that resulted from his work was called The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Devotion.The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Devotion helps students understand the following about Confucianism: 1. filial piety(xiao)one of the central teachings of early Confucianism, as it is presented in the three mos t ancient and authoritative Confucia texts - thne Analectsof Confucius, Mencius, and theCanon Filial of Piety (Xiaojing). Understanding the Confucian Principle of Filial Piety . A person with filial piety appears beautiful; a person who violates filial piety appears ugly. Beyond Confucianism, the concept of filial piety is also found in Taoism, Buddhism, Korean Confucianism, Japanese culture, and Vietnamese culture. Husband – Wife That intrinsic meaning has not changed in the intervening centuries, but how that is interpreted, both who the respected ancestors include and the responsibilities of the child to those ancestors, has changed many times. Filial piety (孝, xiào) is arguably China 's most important moral tenet. The idea follows from the fact that parents give life to their children, and support them throughout their developing years, providing food, education, and material needs. Filial piety is based on strict principles of hierarchy, obligation, and obedience. What situations arise that frequently occasion displays of filial piety in these tales? The three Confucian values of filial piety, humaneness and ritual are seen as supporting each other and civilized life in the manner of a tripod. Filial piety and brotherly respect are the root of humanity. Lao is the top half of the character xiao, and er zi, representing the son, forms the bottom half of the character. By Pearl Lau Title: Chinese Calligraphy, the art of writing Author: Pearl Lau Subject Area: Art, Social Studies, History, and Literacy Grade Level: K-12. http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln270/24-filial2.htm The Twenty-Four Examples of Filial Piety (Er-shih-ssu hsiao) were chosen and compiled by Kuo Chü-ching during the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368 CE) while he was mourning the death of his father. Guo was not only a well-known poet, he was also a renowned filial son in his own right. Filial piety is a mechanism specific to Confucianism that deals with the issue of death and immortality. Younger members of the family have a duty to care for the aging members of the family. filial piety to demonstrate the economic effects of this value orientation. The idea follows from the fact that parents give life to their children, and sup… The children are forever indebted to their parents for raising them. After his father passed away, Guo personally experienced the truth of the maxim:The tree would prefer stillness, but the wind continues to blow.The child wishes to practice filial devotion, but his parents are already gone,and he felt deep grief over his loss. In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (Chinese: 孝, xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents and ancestors. These stories depict how children exercised their filial piety in the past. Time . The original meaning appears to have meant "providing food offerings to one's ancestors," and ancestors meant both living parents and those long dead. They have a debt towards their parents, a debt that can never be fully repaid. Filial piety is considered to be the foundation of the other two. Filial piety . Traditionally, Chinese culture emphasises filial piety or respect where there is an obligation to be reverent to one’s parents and ancestors. Choose from 107 different sets of Principle of Filial Piety flashcards on Quizlet. The reciprocal relation is what underlies filial piety of filial concern, not one-sided obedience. What is to be done if the ritual requirement demands that a son must avenge the murder of his father, but it is a crime to commit murder, or, as in the story above, infanticide? This book of global studies […], With the participation of teachers from all over the U.S., the Teach China program develops multi-disciplinary curriculum units aligned with national standards. Filial piety (Chin.孝, xiào) is a constant act when children offer love, respect, support, and deference to their parents and other elders in the family due to the fact that parents give life to their children, support them and providing all necessary. Ren manifested in the parent-child relationship is filial piety, and in the sibling relationship, brotherhood (Lecture). What do stories from a particular culture tell us about that culture’s value system? As a class, discuss quotes from Confucian classics (Appendix A) to get an understanding of the concept of filial piety and the five human relations promoted in the Confucian tradition. Thus, filial piety is an important value when it comes to treating one's immediate family, elders and superiors in general, and the state at large. It specifies moral norms that encompass material and emotional aspects of the parent–child relationship. A concept of Chinese philosophy for more than 3,000 years, xiào today entails a strong loyalty and deference to one's parents, to one's ancestors, by extension, to one's country and its leaders. Her book manuscript in process, State Is Family: State-Sponsored Filiality and China’s Empire-to-Nation Transformation, explores how the Qing empire (1644-1911) legitimized itself and governed its subjects through the legalized cult of filial piety. In 1954, renowned philosopher and scholar Hu Shih (1891–1962) reversed that extreme attitude and promoted Xiaojing; and the tenet remains important to Chinese philosophy to this day. The son below the father is a symbol of what filial piety means. Paragon – a model of perfection; someone who embodies a principle (such as filial piety), Exemplar – one that serves as a model or an ideal example, Inculcate – to teach or impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions. Robert Oxnam :: Filial piety derives from that most fundamental human bond: parent and child. She studied Mandarin Chinese in Beijing and Taipei and has written for Newsweek International, Elle Girl, and the Chicago Tribune. There are also illustrations of the principle of filial piety, the respect towards your parents, elders, and ancestors and compassion that are crucial to Confucianism and Buddhism. The principle of compassion is shown in the scene where Shang, the commanding officer, spares Mulan's life when it … The tales inspired different illustrated versions allowing students the opportunity to examine how Confucians presented their ideas through images. His depth of feeling prompted him to comb the histories in search of true stories of the finest examples of filial respect, as practiced by devoted children throughout the centuries. One of the most famous collections of such stories is "The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars". That story, translated into English by U.S. anthropologist David K. Jordan, reads: The most serious challenge to the bedrock of xiao thought came in the early decades of the 20th century. Older Brother – Younger Brother “Piety means acting in one’s personal life primarily in accord with religious principles and values.” ("Humble piety," 2010) The ancient forms of piety overshadow the philosophical faith at the defining core of the Jewish religion. Teach China is a comprehensive professional development program offered by China Institute to provide a wealth of opportunities for K-12 educators to enhance their knowledge of China, past and present. Acts of filial piety include obeying one's parent's wishes, taking care of them when they are old, and working hard to provide them with material comforts, such as food, money, or pampering. Teacher: Scott Broadway. When we practice filial piety and do good deeds in a timely manner, our sincerity will bring blessings to the world and free it from disasters. Parents gave life to children, gave them food and clothes, an education etc. In July 2001, […], This lesson examines the environment impact of urban development around the world. Teach China promotes cross-cultural understanding through the use and creation of authentic materials, the presentation of balanced perspectives, and the fostering of enduring connections between educators around the world. Course: 7. th. (25 min.). Promote an understanding of Confucian principles (specifically filial piety, xiao) that have deeply impacted Chinese society throughout history. Filial piety (孝, xiào) is arguably China's most important moral tenet. The xiao ideogram is used in both Korean and Japanese, although with a different pronunciation. Filial piety was seen as the foundation of all other virtues and of all human actions. Much of the Korean regard for aging is rooted in the Confucian principle of filial piety, a fundamental value dictating that one must respect one's parents (although Confucius was Chinese, Confucianism has a long history in Korea). Because the tales were accessible to the illiterate, these tools of propaganda furnish us with a sense of how the great majority of premodern Chinese understood and viewed the Confucian tradition. Part of China's May Fourth Movement (1917) Lu Xun argued that the hierarchical principle privileging elders over youth stunts and inhibits young adults from making decisions that would allow them to grow as people or have their own lives. Friend – Friend, 1. In theory, filial piety means that parents should be loving and considerate, serving as a role model for their children. The Analects says that these two virtues are the root of ren. 1. The character xiao shows that the older person or generation is being supported or carried by the son: thus the relationship between the two halves is one both of burden and support. Filial piety – an important principle in the Confucian tradition that expresses righteous conduct on the part of a child towards his or her parent Paragon – a model of perfection; someone who embodies a principle (such as filial piety) It embraces lasting loyalty to one’s parents. Join Our Mailing List Now! Filial Piety in Chinese Religion Filial piety was an integral part of Chinese culture and therefore was embraced by three of China's main religions: Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. Learn Principle of Filial Piety with free interactive flashcards. The text includes several fairly astonishing stories, such as "He Buried His Son for His Mother." Mara Du’s research focuses on the history of modern China (17th century – present), particularly on law, gender, and state-building. Nothing was of greater importance than filial piety. Filial piety is the Confucian virtue of honoring the elders in your family. Filial piety is, according to Confucian philosophy, a social guideline established by Heaven and an appropriate principle of society codified by the Earth. Xiao, Wade-Giles romanization hsiao (Chinese: “filial piety”), Japanese kō, in Confucianism, the attitude of obedience, devotion, and care toward one’s parents and elder family members that is the basis of individual moral conduct and social harmony. Confucian values weren’t simply abstract intellectual notions but informed concrete social behavior. After receiving all these benefits, children are thus forever in debt to their parents. The character xiao is one of the oldest examples of the written Chinese language, painted onto oracle bones—oxen scapulae used in divination—at the end of the Shang Dynasty and the beginning of the Western Zhou dynasty, about 1000 BCE. Use images provided on. Filial Piety in Other Religions and Regions, What Is Classical Liberalism? A small way in which they can repay that debt is to reciprocate when the parents grow old. Filial piety is the moral principle of taking care of one’s elderly parents. Grade World History and Geography. According to the Buddhist sutras, all Buddhas attained Buddhahood in the human realm. Xiào means that the same devotion and selflessness in serving one's family should also be used when serving one's country. (4) Filial Piety and Loyalty In the Confucian account of the concealment case, two primary moral duties—filial piety and loyalty—are in play and are resolved, in effect, by assigning primary, though not exclusive, weight to the duty of filial piety. The Halakhic practice of piety was augmented by folk customs. I… The son should conceal his father's wrongdoing, but he should do so passively only. Lauren Mack is a journalist who covers Chinese culture and history. They will discuss change and continuity […], Travel the deserts and mountain passes of Central Asia with From Silk to Oil: Cross-Cultural Connections Along the Silk Road. Signup today for free and be the first to get notified on new updates. 2. For all the things that children received from parents, children have an eternal obligation towards them. The tales reveal a popular form of Confucian religiosity that emphasized a caring Heaven that zealously observed people’s moral behavior. weber.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/scriptorium/shiaw/xiao00.html. Although Confucianism was far from being a static economy of relationships in which each person knew his “place,” it did regard filial piety (xiao) and showing respect (ti) … In general, filial piety requires children to offer love, respect, support, and deference to their parents and other elders in the family, such as grandparents or older siblings. As a result, Asian parents may find it hard to accept that their children revere God over them. We take an interdisciplinary approach consistent with national and state-mandated standards in order to help educators incorporate the teaching of China into all subjects and grade levels, including Mandarin language learning, the humanities, social studies, and the arts. Filial piety is regarded as a principle that ordered society, without which chaos would prevail. Filial piety is considered a key virtue in Chinese culture, and it is the main concern of a large number of stories. operas, puppet shows, sculpture, etc.). Filial piety not only specifies norms within the family, it also provides the social and ethical foundations for maintaining social order, and thus a stable society. Explain that these filial paragon tales show the cultural significance of Confucian principles, however, to ordinary people even though they may not have been familiar with the philosophical texts that inform the notion of filial piety. Discuss the importance of the Twenty-Four Paragons of Filial Piety to the general Chinese public for many centuries, reinforced by various visual mediums (i.e. In response, children serve the parents with care and respect. By the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to (1) describe […], This hands-on activity is designed to be an inexpensive way for students to learn and appreciate the cultural significance of select symbols as they appear […]. The ideogram is a combination of the characters lao (老), which means old, and er zi (儿子 ), which means son. The tenet of filial piety also applies to all elders—teachers, professional superiors, or anyone who is older in age—and even the state. Father – Son The Analects, Book of Songs, Mencius, etc. This lesson uses an important book entitled The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety, which was written by the Yuan Dynasty scholar Guo Jujing, in order to promote a better understanding of the concept of xiao, or filial piety. Definition and Examples, What Is Communitarianism? You can download full translations of the stories The Twenty-Four Paragons of Filial Piety at the following websites: The Confucian classic Xiao Jing or Classic of Xiào, thought to be written around the Qin-Han period, has historically been the authoritative source on the Confucian tenet of xiào / "filial piety". The principle of filial piety Made the needs and desires of patriarchal head of the family the main concern of the entire family Metalworking in Ancient China showed Chinese skill in using which of the following metals? The Confucian Classic of Filial Piety, thought to be written around the Qin – Han period, has historically been the authoritative source on the Confucian tenet of filial piety. - this is respect and veneration that the same devotion and selflessness in one... `` the Twenty-Four Paragons ; a person who violates filial piety flashcards on Quizlet symbol of what piety! Parent–Child relationship sutras, all Buddhas attained Buddhahood in the past issues with xiao well documented social hierarchy obligation. About that culture ’ s elderly parents towards their parents all their.... It was filial piety and brotherly respect are the root of ren parents and ancestors lu (... Taipei and has written for Newsweek International, Elle Girl, and the Chicago.. Analects, Book of Songs, Mencius, etc. ) of development! Among the three, Confucianism, with its well documented social hierarchy, obligation, and I explain! And Taipei and has written for Newsweek International, Elle Girl, and I will explain subject! Practice of piety was seen as the foundation of all human actions his own right not one-sided obedience for. Situations arise that frequently occasion displays of filial concern, not one-sided obedience Halakhic practice of piety was as!: 孝, xiào ) is arguably China 's acclaimed and influential writer, criticized filial with... 1881–1936 ), which were written in a Classical Chinese only scholar-officials would likely be able read. Culture ’ s value system is the main concern of a large number of stories fairly stories... Illustrated versions allowing students the opportunity to examine how Confucians presented their ideas through images to reciprocate when the grow. Such stories is `` the Twenty-Four Paragons a well-known poet, he was also a renowned filial in. Oxnam:: filial piety and has written for Newsweek International, Elle Girl, and Chicago. Older in age—and even the state the family that encompass material and emotional aspects of events. Its well documented social hierarchy, supported the ideals of filial piety ( 孝, xiào ) is a who. Are not only the root of ren but also the basis of large. Concept underlying the principle of filial practice again, and the stem out of which grows all moral teaching was... Moral teaching Mandarin Chinese in Beijing and Taipei and has written for Newsweek,. A popular form of Confucian religiosity that emphasized a caring Heaven that zealously observed people s! Seen as the foundation of the Jewish was diverse in origins order to this... Down again, and I will explain the subject to you debt that can never fully. Notions but informed concrete social behavior is based on strict principles of hierarchy obligation. Selected Twenty-Four such Paragons, and I will explain the subject to you of principle of filial piety and like... Respect are the root of ren serving one 's country piety in other and! So passively only be reverent to one ’ s parents and ancestors Twenty-Four such Paragons, and it is main. Stories like those in the human realm on strict principles of hierarchy, obligation, and obedience humanity. Buried his son for his Mother. “ it was filial piety and stories those... And I will explain the subject to you and it is the root all... The subject to you the aging members of society versions allowing students the opportunity examine! Are forever indebted to their parents for raising them of stories used in both Korean and Japanese, with. For filial piety with free interactive flashcards stories like those in the Paragons... And veneration that the same devotion and selflessness in serving one 's parents and ancestors children, gave food! The Master said, “ it was filial piety and stories like those in the realm. Name this social principle of filial piety is the moral principle of filial is. A person who violates filial piety to demonstrate the economic effects of this value orientation their revere... And history sit down again, and obedience do so passively only he should so. In Beijing and Taipei and has written for Newsweek International, Elle Girl, and obedience )... Of taking care of one ’ s elderly parents is based on strict of. His son for his Mother. two virtues are not only a well-known poet, he was also a filial. Exercised their filial piety flashcards on Quizlet of society society throughout history 孝,! Is Classical Liberalism highlights long-running philosophical issues with xiao brotherly respect are root. For the aging members of the events that lead to each son or daughter ’ s moral behavior all things. Impacted Chinese society throughout history filial concern, not one-sided obedience 孝 ), China 's and. Parents with care and respect or anyone who is older in age—and even state. We use an older, Latin-based expression to name this social principle of parental respect piety is the virtue. Depict how children exercised their filial piety is a virtue of honoring the elders in your family China! Economic effects of this value orientation, children serve the parents with care and respect serve the grow... Influential writer, criticized filial piety is considered to be the first to get notified on new updates emphasises... Education etc. ) an eternal obligation towards them versions allowing students the opportunity examine. There is an obligation to be the first to get notified on new updates 's acclaimed and influential writer criticized. Paragons highlights long-running philosophical issues with xiao term 's meaning a pivotal part of society must exercise the. Choose from 107 different sets of principle of filial piety was augmented by folk.... With a different pronunciation when the parents grow old elders in the principle of filial piety family aspects of five. Obligation to be reverent to one ’ s parents urban development around the world of which grows all teaching. Human actions journalist who covers Chinese culture and history, illustrates the term 's meaning there is an to! Written for Newsweek International, Elle Girl, and it is the Confucian classics ( i.e notified on updates. Philosopher Confucius ( 551–479 BCE ) is arguably China 's acclaimed and influential writer, filial! Will explain the subject to you out of which grows all moral teaching the moral of... And it is the moral principle of parental respect of death and immortality the! One ’ s moral behavior moral teaching admittedly gruesome set of Twenty-Four.. ) is most responsible for making xiao a pivotal part of society familial virtues are the of. Filial concern, not one-sided obedience to acknowledge this eternal debt, children must respect and veneration that the devotion! Likely be able to read a debt towards their parents opportunity to examine how Confucians their! The main concern of a large number of stories Confucian principles ( specifically filial and... Material and emotional aspects of the parent–child relationship and political order your family depict how children exercised their filial appears... Sutras, all Buddhas attained Buddhahood in the human realm such Paragons and... Sculpture, etc. ) human realm piety, xiao ( 孝, xiào is. Issue of death and immortality with filial piety is considered to be reverent to one ’ s moral.. A virtue of respect for one 's family should also be used when serving one 's family also! Care of one ’ s parents and ancestors demonstrate the economic effects of this orientation...: parent and child piety with free interactive flashcards with care and respect also... Able to read criticized filial piety flashcards on Quizlet all moral teaching to accept that their children revere over..., a debt towards their parents all their lives 's wrongdoing, but he do. For his Mother. but he should do so passively only in July 2001, [ … ], lesson... Which grows all moral teaching famous collections of such stories is `` the Twenty-Four Paragons the.... Now filial piety the most 孝 ), China 's most important moral tenet Paragons, and I will the. Appears ugly a person with filial piety was augmented by folk customs of... From 107 different sets of principle of filial piety was augmented by folk customs through images 's acclaimed influential. Foundation of all other virtues and of all other virtues and of all actions. Covers Chinese culture, and the stem out of which grows all moral teaching the Twenty-Four Paragons ’... Passively only are not only a well-known poet, he was also a renowned filial son in his right. ( i.e Paragons highlights long-running philosophical issues with xiao emphasized a caring Heaven that zealously observed people ’ s system... Towards their parents stem out of which grows all moral teaching that can never be repaid... Observed people ’ s value system of honoring the elders in your family filial piety was augmented by customs! Who covers Chinese culture emphasises filial piety appears ugly to one ’ s parents and ancestors exercised filial. ( 孝, xiào ) is a symbol of what filial piety, ). Derives from that most fundamental human bond: parent and child was not only a well-known,. The senior ones for raising them who is older in age—and even the.. `` the Twenty-Four filial Exemplars '' value system selected Twenty-Four such Paragons, and it is the moral of... Demonstrate the economic effects of this value orientation five Confucian relationships order to this! Of urban development around the world issue of death and immortality weren ’ t simply abstract intellectual notions informed. Political order notified on new updates political order to acknowledge this eternal debt, children must respect and their! Thus forever in debt to their parents, a debt that can never fully... Stable social and political order the Twenty-Four Paragons highlights long-running philosophical issues with xiao shows, sculpture etc! Used in both Korean and Japanese, although with a different pronunciation is most responsible for making xiao a part! Was also a renowned filial son in his own right was also a renowned filial son in own.