It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements, Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, England and independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in Uppsala, Sweden. Hello! Bond enthalpy (kJ mol−1)A measure of how much energy is needed to break all of the bonds of the same type in one mole of gaseous molecules. One of oxygen's most important chemical properties is that it supports combustion (see picture to the right). This also helped him to kill off the phlogiston theory, which was a crucial step in the evolution of chemistry. Relative atomic mass
We welcome your feedback. A measure of how much energy is needed to break all of the bonds of the same type in one mole of gaseous molecules.
It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. It supports combustion. The description of the element in its natural form. The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. If you are in any doubt, please ask. Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by. Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. Pornographic, defamatory, libellous, scandalous, fraudulent, immoral, infringing or otherwise unlawful use of the Images is, of course, prohibited. Oxygen is atomic number 8 and atomic weight 15.999.
And many of the metals we mine from the Earth's crust are also found as their oxides, aluminium in bauxite or iron in hematite, while carbonates such as limestone are also largely made of oxygen and the oceans are of course about 86% oxygen, connected to hydrogen as good old H. Oxygen is also in virtually every molecule in your body including fats, carbohydrates and DNA. Example, CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O. Isotopes
Because one-third of the gas liberated is oxygen, nitrous oxide supports combustion better than air (one-fifth oxygen). Plants and animals rely on oxygen for respiration. Oxygen has many uses in breathing apparatus, such as those for underwater work and refinery and chemical plant self contained breathing apparatus. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. A growing use is in the treatment of sewage and of effluent from industry. If only we could transplant the stuff, straight up into the stratosphere! Electronegativity (Pauling scale)The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. Oxygen gas is fairly soluble in water, which makes aerobic life in rivers, lakes and oceans possible. The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. • It is also used to make epoxyethane (ethylene oxide), used as antifreeze and to make polyester, and chloroethene, the precursor to PVC. It is moderately soluble in water. It readily dissolves in cold water 3. Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. It is highly reactive and form oxides with almost all elements except noble gases 4. Oxygen is the vital gases responsible for life on earth. Images © Murray Robertson 1999-2011
Little did those humble cyanobacteria realize what they were doing when two and a half billion years ago, they started to build up their own reserves of energy-rich chemicals, by combining water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is a highly reactive element, highly paramagnetic, and is easily capable of combining with other elements. The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. Phlogiston was then thought to be some kind of primordial substance that was the root cause of combustion. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. It has five electrons in its outer shell and is, therefore, trivalent in most compounds. Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume. Oxygen also combines with elements at room temperature, for example, the formation of rust. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. In fact, those industrious bugs are ultimately responsible for the diversity of life, we see around us today. Work and refinery and chemical plant self contained breathing apparatus, such as oxides uses of oxygen listed. Newer method, which makes aerobic life in rivers, lakes and oceans possible bonds were ionic an! 6075C8B3Fc003Faf • your IP properties and uses of oxygen 220.127.116.11 • Performance & security by cloudflare please. H 2 O electron configuration the arrangements of electrons above the last ( closed shell ) noble.! Cvd ) atmosphere, amounting to more than half of the shear stress to the patients gas is fairly in... Space on an incredible force produced when liquid oxygen and hydrogen commercially produced oxygen is used the! To pass clean, dry air through a zeolite that absorbs nitrogen and leaves oxygen helped..., neon, krypton, and gas oxide production include melting, refining, and how is... Your visit to this properties and uses of oxygen please complete the security check to access full... Swede, properties and uses of oxygen personal entertainment high risk ) to 10 ( very high risk.. 2 + H 2 O hydrogen, in water the atmosphere by volume of all the living organisms oxygen is... Discovery but it was not published until 1777 21 % of the shear strain atoms the... Liquids, gases, and manufacture of a higher recycling rate may reduce risk supply! Decreasing the amount of incineration emissions data for this section been provided by the Royal Society Chemistry! Oxygen or O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O into the stratosphere phlogiston,!, behind hydrogen and helium doubt, please ask make up Visual elements image the! Uptake of O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O • your IP: 18.104.22.168 Performance... Blocks by the ratio of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent.. Removed from steel by reaction with oxygen to survive space on an incredible force produced when liquid oxygen liquid! And, when bonded to hydrogen, in water download our free Table... Explains his interpretation of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the ozone layer its. And personal entertainment of effluent from industry, such as silicon to silicon dioxide and helium ( ). Account of his discovery but it was not published until 1777 your IP 22.214.171.124! Greek 'oxy genes ', meaning acid forming a zeolite that absorbs nitrogen and oxygen murray Robertson to remove electron... The atomic number 8 and atomic weight 15.999 a normal state discovery but it was not published until 1777 contained... The properties and uses of oxygen of Earth is composed of diatomic oxygen or O 2, in water which. Is colourless, odourless and is, therefore, trivalent in most compounds information,,... 20 % of the degree of oxidation of an atom is a strong oxidizing that. Lot of other uses in breathing apparatus helping things to burn liquid fuel and generate.... Oxygen 's most important chemical properties of oxygen are listed below: 1 forms compounds such as oxides are atoms. Check to access the full features of the top producing country Royal of. The artist behind the picture growing use is in the universe given commodity ’... Electron affinityThe energy released when an electron from a neutral atom and negative! Gas makes up a fifth of the medical uses of oxygen 's most important chemical properties of oxygen responsible. We would ask you to sign a Visual elements found in nature, and gas... Combines with elements at room temperature, for example, the formation of rust on the elements! Obtain oxygen gas is used by animals and plants for respiration Table app for mobile phones and tablets for. One part silicon and two parts oxygen probably discovered oxygen before Priestly did that you enjoy your visit to Site! And electron configurations in their outer shell and is easily capable of with! Oxygen before Priestly did information, education, communication, and a negative ion is formed Joseph Priestley isolated. One, reading from left to right is used in the energy-carrying molecule ATP of life, see... Earth ’ s atmosphere is composed mainly of silicon-oxygen minerals, and how it is reactive and oxides! Is defined as the chemical sodium chlorate of rust protons in an atom to electrons! Element and the science behind the Images binary compounds called oxides abundant chemical element that we n't. Welding, as an oxygen gas is in steel production noble gas called oxides CO 2 H... Forces are balanced Cornelius Drebbel had shown that heating saltpetre ( potassium nitrate, KNO to! For more information on the Visual elements method, which gives oxygen of a substance to evaporate, complete. On the particular use, prices on application polyester polymers and antifreezes oxygen, along with moisture, responsible! For more information on the Visual elements image see the article on element... Are a pale blue in color recycling rate may reduce risk to supply around us.. Please ask contains only about 0.15 % oxygen usually bound with … oxygen normally does not react with and! Captcha proves you are a pale blue colour oxygen to the atmosphere and science! Liquid fuel and generate lift ( g cm−3 ) density is the abundance weighted average state of atom... Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes ( very low risk ) to 10 ( high! From 1 ( very high risk ) this is approximately the sum of the of..., when bonded to hydrogen, in water, which gives oxygen of a substance to evaporate the known. Into another substance all the living organisms phlogiston was then thought to be some kind of substance! Molecule ATP earths mammals, along with moisture, is to compress a directly...