International Classes: C08G8/28. Bryan D. Vogt (Associate Editor). This thermosetting plastic created a revolution in the world of product design. The colorful bangles, earrings and bracelets were widely used. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. condensation was completed. When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. Glacial Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. Proper preparation of metallographic specimens is a key step to determine the accurate microstructure of a material and often requires sectioning, mounting, course grinding, fine grinding, polishing, etching and microscopic examination. Answers. Extracts from the notes are below, to see the PDF you'll receive please use the links above. The reaction that takes place is highly exothermic, the loss of water molecule result in the cooling process. hexa methelene diamine (curing agent) a cross linked polymer Bakelite can be obtained. Because of this, it gets transformed into a thermosetting plastic. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure. : In order to view a metal specimen under an optical microscope, the sample must be prepared using several steps. anon124253 November 5, 2010 . Share Tweet Share Pin it... of potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium and barium are more reactive than magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide. Preparation of bakelite: Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. Preparation of Bakelite It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The proposed method for bakelite varnish is as follows. This page uses frames, but your browser doesn't support them. Preparation of bakelite and melamine Get the answers you need, now! This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. TEFLON: Teflon is a plastic like substance which is produced by polymerizing tetrafluoroethylene (CF2 = CF2). Different substitutes of phenol and formaldehyde can also be used depending on the application. Preparation of Bakelite Date: 28-09-10 Muhammad Usman (2008-chem-02-B) Properties of required chemicals: 1. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Asbestos, wood flour, cotton flock, cotton pulp, gypsum, mica etc., are a few reinforcing fillers that are added in molding resins like Bakelite. It is liquefiable and malleable when heated and becomes permanently hard and rigid on cooling. The Bakelite preparation can be demonstrated in the following steps of reactions-. Music for body and spirit - Meditation music Recommended for you  The dielectric constant of Bakelite falls in the range of 4.4 to 5.4,  Greater thermal, electrical and chemical resistance.  It shows high resistance towards heat, electricity and chemical action. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of 3 and the search for … Following are a few properties that are enhanced by the addition of fillers: Greater thermal, electrical and chemical resistance. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions: 300+ LIKES. E.g., PVC. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. It is used to make buttons, clocks, washing machine impeller, toys, kitchenware and much more. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. Learn about the Structure, Properties, and Uses of Bakelite and How it is Made. It is hard for us to imagine our life without plastic. Phenol-Formaldehyde Polymers(Bakelite and related polymers):-they are obtained by condensation of phenol with formaldehyde in presence of either an acid or abase catalyst the initial product is Navolac which is points.Melamine-Formaldehyde Polymers:-Melamine and formaldehyde undergo condensation copolymerisation to form – melamine – Formaldehyde polymer also called … Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. I. Fully mix phenolic resin with sawnwood powder, talc (filler), urotropine (curing agent), stearic acid (lubricant), pigment, etc., and heat and knead in the mixer to obtain bakelite powder. Hence, it is a thermosetting plastic. Then heat and pressure is applied to it. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure. It is due to a number of important properties of the first synthetic plastic, Bakelite that it has been aptly named as 'material of a thousand uses'. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. The answers to questions 1-13 are given below with their explanations. Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. C. Nucleophilic addition and dehydration. Increase Brain Power, Focus Music, Reduce Anxiety, Binaural and Isochronic Beats - Duration: 3:16:57. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Polymers are formed by combining 'monomer' or single units using a range of reaction mechanisms. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Before we move on to the preparation of Bakelite, it is important to know how a polymer is prepared. The properties of Bakelite are studied to get information regarding its commercial usage. Chemistry investigatory project - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. This is why they are used to make a number of electronic gadgets, switches and automobile parts. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. DELHI PRIVATE SCHOOL DUBAI CERTIFICATE Certified that … Bakelite, trademarked synthetic resin invented in 1907 by Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland. The plastic furniture at homes, offices and schools, the electric sockets, plugs, devices, buckets- everything has become an essential part of human life. II. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. Primary Class: 528/140. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. Formation of Novalac from ortho hydroxy benzyl alcohol.

Before we move on to the preparation of Bakelite, it is important to know how a polymer is prepared. Making Bakelite is a multi-stage process. 176,809, filed November 27, 1937, Patent No. tsvanmeet May 22, 2010 . Bakelite falls under this category of plastics. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material. The method is designed to produce bakelite varnish LB-SP, representing mainly alcohol solution rezol formaldehyde resin obtained by condensing phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of dead-burned magnesia or magnesium oxide as a catalyst. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. International Classes: C08G8/28. B. Electrophilic addition and dehydration. 2,234,548, of March 11, 1941, for Phenolic resins. It is always fascinating to study about polymers and its chemistry as they offer a wide range of possibilities to be put into our everyday life. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours. Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions: (A) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (B) Condensation and elimination (C) Nucleophilic addition This can occur at the ortho and The use of Bakelite might have been reduced today when compared to the earlier years, but it is still in use. Buy These Notes Preview. Bakelite is a thermosetting resin—that is, once molded, it retains its shape even if heated or subjected to various solvents. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. Bakelite was invented in the early twentieth century but it is an important topic of study even in this 21st century. Many cheaper substitutes for Bakelite have been investigated which are replacing its use in the market. We see that a number of things like the plastic handle of utensils, telephones, bangles, automobile parts etc., are made of Bakelite. The application is a continuation-in-part of a copendIng application, Serial No. This invention relates to the preparation of quaternary opium basic derivatives. Because of the relatively small amounts available, after grinding and mixing with liquid Bakelite, carbonized samples were mounted in small holes (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm deep) drilled in larger cylindrical Bakelite blocks. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. I would like to know the percentage of phenol and formaldehyde for making bakelite, and also the preparation or mechanism of bakelite. BAKELITE CORP . Preparation of bakelite proceeds via reactions. (ii) It is … The colorful bangles, earrings and bracelets were widely used. ... (Bakelite) or thermoplastic. Although Bakelite was the trade name of the first thermosetting phenolic resin, it was not the only one. Drop the temperature on the water bath to between … Formation of Novalac from ortho hydroxy benzyl alcohol. The two major classifications of plastics are- Thermoplastics and Thermosets. Preparation of Alcohol by Fermentation Fermentation in the environment is the earliest method for the preparation of ethyl alcohol by the chemical catalyst and uses for the manufacture of different types of drinks brands like beer, wine, whisky, and brandy.  The ability to be molded makes it a part of the commodities being used in modern life. C Sample Preparation for Photometry. Formation of Bakelite follows electrophilic substitution Reaction of Phenol with formaldehyde followed by condensation. Bakelite Bakelite is one of the earliest commercial plastics. Artificial jewelry made of metals or some other alloys may sometimes result into allergies or skin irritation, but carefully manufactured Bakelite jewelry are cent percent safe to wear which gave it an added advantage in the market. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. Pro Lite, Vedantu In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. Uses of Bakelite : (i) It is used for making electrical switches and plugs. The reaction involved is condensation reaction in the presence of either a basic or acidic catalyst. The ability to be molded makes it a part of the commodities being used in modern life. For comparison, the nanocomposite sample is side-by-side compared with the corresponding simple blend of Bakelite polymer and RNP (physical mixing of RNP with Bakelite during its preparation). Bakelite has emerged out as a huge commercial success and its uses know no boundaries. I would like to know the percentage of phenol and formaldehyde for making bakelite. Document Preview. (ii) It is … How to Mount, Polish, and Etch a Sample for Optical Microscopy.  It can be easily molded and hence is used in the making of various products. Proper understanding of the structure and properties of synthetic polymers like Bakelite is, thus, important in polymer chemistry. It is the 21st century and we literally live in the world of plastics. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure.  It is usually brown/amber but can be made in a variety of bright colors. Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl 2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH 3). It is used to make buttons, clocks, washing machine impeller, toys, kitchenware and much more. Proper preparation of metallographic specimens to determine microstructure and content requires that a rigid step-by-step process be followed. Artificial jewelry made of metals or some other alloys may sometimes result into allergies or skin irritation, but carefully manufactured Bakelite jewelry are cent percent safe to wear which gave it an added advantage in the market. Watch Preparation of Phenol formaldehyde - Bakelite in English from Identifying Polymers and Condensation Polymerisation and Some Commercially Important Polymers here. In sequence, the steps include sectioning, mounting, course grinding, fine ... Bakelite is a low cost, relatively hard thermosetting polymer that is commonly utilized. Layers of paper or glass cloth are impregnated with synthetic resin. Prepare phenol formaldehyde plastic (Bakelite) We may not realize but we live in a world of polymers, and everything and anything connected to us or our surroundings is chemistry. Studying the properties of Bakelite will give us a wider idea as to why it is used for a wide range of applications. This creates a liquid condensation product, referred to as Bakelite A, which is soluble in alcohol, acetone, or additional phenol. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours. Combination of phenol and formaldehyde to form ortho and para hydroxy benzyl alcohols. Also, the reaction should be conducted under pressure, otherwise the product formed will be brittle and a low density material. The product should be clear even upon cooling to room temperature. CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. Combination of phenol and formaldehyde to form ortho and para hydroxy benzyl alcohols. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. … Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. It was between 1907-1909 that the Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland successfully developed the first commercialized synthetic molding plastic, Bakelite. Primary Class: 528/140. Warm the viscous lower layer in a hot water bath and while thoroughly mixing, add acetic acid until the product turns clear, then add a little more. May 3 • General • 20529 Views • 5 Comments on Preparation of Teflon or PTFE. Bakelite is a Polymer made up of the Monomers Phenol and Formaldehyde. It is usually brown/amber but can be made in a variety of bright colors. It is noticed that a lot of convex particles and concave holes exist on the fracture surfaces of the simple polymer blends. Heated further, the product becomes partially soluble and can still be softened by heat. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. Bakelite was first used as insulators against heat and electricity. Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the preparation of-varnishes and lacquers . The addition of an inert filler also reduces the cost of molding. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. [6] When phenol (C 6 H 6 O), which is an organic compound [1] and a common disinfectant [3] , is mixed with formaldehyde (CH 2 O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat [2] … Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. Bakelite was unique because it was the first material to be both entirely 2 in origin, and thermosetting. Sorry!, This page is not available for now to bookmark. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. Title: Bakelite preparation report Description: preparation of bakelite in lab. Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions : A. Electrophilic substitution and dehydration. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. When novalac resin is further heated in presence of HCHO producer i.e. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. Pro Lite, Vedantu Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the preparation of-varnishes and lacquers . Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Glacial acetic acid 2. The cloth is also made with cellulose paper, synthetic yarn, cotton, glass fabrics, or unwoven fabrics. Explain with reaction the preparation of bakelite - 19161329 Answer. The answers to questions 1-13 are given below with their explanations. Because of the relatively small amounts available, after grinding and mixing with liquid Bakelite, carbonized samples were mounted in small holes (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm deep) drilled in larger cylindrical Bakelite blocks. Structure of Acetylene - The Triple Bonds, Dichloromethane Uses and Effects on Environment, Vedantu The physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of Bakelite make it a widely used commercial polymers. 3.0k VIEWS. Fillers are used to increase the strength and enhance the properties of the Bakelite so that it can be used for various applications. Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals. Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE): Polytetrafluroethylene is also known as Teflon. Sustained heating results in an "insoluble hard gum". Answers. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. Based on the above-mentioned properties of the Bakelite, here are some of its uses-. Forum: Toughening of Networks and Gel Through Molecular Design. C Sample Preparation for Photometry. Raw materials used in the preparation of bakelite are :-phenol and formaldehyde. The preparation of molding materials from resins of this inventien follow the customary practice of premixing the resin with the fibrous filler and passing between heated rolls to fuse the resin and secure a uniform impregnation of Sthe filler. This is why they are used to make a number of electronic gadgets, switches and automobile parts. 3.0k SHARES. Preparation of bakelite proceeds via reactions. Uses of Bakelite : (i) It is used for making electrical switches and plugs. Chemistry Assignment Help, polymers.., preparation of bakelite.  Being a good insulator, it is used in non-conducting parts of radios and other electrical devices like sockets, switches, automobile distribution caps, insulation of wires, brake pads etc. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. It begins with heating of phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of a catalyst such as hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, or the base ammonia. Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. Preparation Method Phenolic resin and aldehyde compound can be prepared by polycondensation reaction under the action of acidic or basic catalyst. The dielectric constant of Bakelite falls in the range of 4.4 to 5.4. As ways were found to manufacture Bakelite in bright colors, it began to be used for all sorts of decorative objects, especially jewelry. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived Since Bakelite can be made into different colors, Bakelite jewelry was once very much in use. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound and a common disinfectant, is mixed with … It shows high resistance towards heat, electricity and chemical action.  Bakelite is the commercial name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. D. Condensation and elimination. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde.  Since Bakelite can be made into different colors, Bakelite jewelry was once very much in use. Text Solution. Melting point 314 k Boiling point 455 k Solubility in water 8.3 g/100 ml (20 oC) Acidity (Pka) 9.95 Flash point 79 oC Preparation of Bakelite o Chemicals required: 1. Share Tweet Share Pin it... of potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium and barium are more reactive than magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide. It can be easily molded and hence is used in the making of various products. Water molecule is removed in the process. sample preparation. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material. The structure for the cross-linked polymer, known by the commercial name of Bakelite is given below. The mechanism: The first step is an nucleophilic aromatic substitution adding formaldehyde to the phenol. Unlike linear and branched polymers (see demonstration 25.2), which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. The preparation of molding materials from resins of this inventien follow the customary practice of premixing the resin with the fibrous filler and passing between heated rolls to fuse the resin and secure a uniform impregnation of Sthe filler. However, the high temperatures required to create this tends to caus… 20g phenol and 36-40 percent of 25g formaldehyde. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. BAKELITE CORP . Bakelite was definitely a remarkable invention that paved the way to the 'Age of Plastics'. Raw materials used in the preparation of bakelite are :-phenol and formaldehyde. Hence, it is a thermosetting plastic. Modern day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907. The preparation process takes approximately 20-30 minutes from start to finish. It must be mounted onto bakelite puck, polished using finer and finer grits as well as polishing slurry, and finally it … This article is cited by 98 publications. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Bakelite requires two monomers- phenol and formaldehyde. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? Bakelite is the commercial name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. HARD. To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added.  It is liquefiable and malleable when heated and becomes permanently hard and rigid on cooling. (1) Condensation and elimination (2) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (3) Electrophilic substitution and … Water molecule is removed in the process. Thermosets or thermosetting plastics on the other hand become hard and rigid on cooling and retain their shape. Methods are known and described for making salts of such compounds. Being a good insulator, it is used in non-conducting parts of radios and other electrical devices like sockets, switches, automobile distribution caps, insulation of wires, brake pads etc. Modern day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907. The 21st century and we literally live in the world of plastics ' or plastics... Or single units using a range of 4.4 to 5.4: 3:16:57 application. 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