Automatic algorithms may be used to aid the user in the execution of these responsibilities. If not specified, default access lists are assumed as follows: All authorization access lists have the default condition of null (i.e., unless otherwise specified, they are empty) except those associated with the following actions: unrestricted access, right-to-change authorization lists, and right-to-change file classifications. These instances are follows: Comment: The Task Force does not recommend any particular recertification periodicity, but suggests that initially, at least, the question of periodic inspection and recertification be jointly determined by the System Security Officer and the Responsible Authority. If the Supervisor software is designed to monitor the operating status of each remote station before sending information to it, the loss of a remote station is not a security threat, although such incidents must be reported to the System Security Officer. Accidental Disclosure. In order for this to work, each … When a new file is created by combining information from existing files and adding interpretations of the combined results, it is conceivable that a purely algorithmically determined maximum classification and caveats may exceed the user's access privileges. Examination of the software is really an aspect of certification and it is conceivable that, because of the technical expertise implied, examination and testing of software can most efficiently be done by a certifying group. Positive control procedures should be used to assure that magnetic tapes or magnetic disc packs containing classified information of one level of classification or special category are not accidentally used at some other inappropriate level. However, a terminal not authorized to access the system in the new mode should not be given any information about the specific classification status of the new mode. Sometimes, the hardware features are not necessary in principle, but as a practical matter the use of relevant hardware features greatly simplifies the achievement of isolation. Some of the most well known are outlined below. They are effective in many ways: with rigidly prescribed procedures, operators will be inhibited from taking shortcuts that can result in leakage; "game players" who wish to subvert the system to their own ends will find it much more difficult in a highly standardized environment; records of system performance and human activities will be available so that the system can be tuned for improved service; etc. The Control Panel in Windows is a collection of applets, sort of like tiny programs, that can be used to configure various aspects of the operating system. Within ARPA, the responsibility for this task was forwarded to Mr. Robert W. Taylor, Director of the Office of Information Processing Techniques. At a particular installation, the System Security Officer will be aware of the levels of classification and special access categories in his system, and must be able to formulate the detailed procedures for shifting the operational mode of the system from one to another. The main security problem in such a closed environment is largely one of maintaining the data and program integrity of each individual user. An individual who has the clearance and all need-to-know authorizations granting him access to all classified information contained in a computer system. With respect to internal encryption, it should be noted that the principal threat countered is recovery of information. The currently known principal hardware mechanisms for isolating programs include base-addressing registers and various forms of hardware checking circuits to assure that memory addresses generated within the processor are in fact restricted to those permitted for the programs of a particular user. Failure Prediction. The first alternative is simplest, but it may be operationally desirable to have a second person involved in change of classification. The following general guidelines apply to physical protection. Add to the accessible label set all labels to which the particular entry permits access. As an aid to the Supervisor in determining which event has occurred, it would be convenient for the hardware to generate unique interrupt signals for each. CA Security Assessment and Authorization. Seconda edizione, Securing information and communications systems: principles, technologies, and applications The system shall not accept information, even for temporary use, without first receiving from the user a declaration of the relevant security parameters, which in this case include classification, all caveats, and labels. It must provide records to the security control supervisor, so that system performance, security safeguards, and user activities can be monitored. This implies that both manual and automatic monitoring facilities are desirable. Their presence will make attempts to subvert the system much more visible and detectable. Obviously, such programs must be carefully designed and must be faultless. However, it is also expedient from the computer point of view to recognize Uncleared as a fourth level of clearance. For example, a legitimate user's sign-off signal can be intercepted and cancelled; then, the illegal terminal can take over interaction with the processor. A secure system must be based on the concept of isolating any given individual from all elements of the system to which he has no need for access. The processing involved is the same for both initial system generation and subsequent updates, and is as follows: Authorization Group Definition occurs at system generation time, but, like Personnel Definition, also may be updated on-line. However, specific keys, passwords, authentication words, and specifically designated sensitive procedures shall require classification. Furthermore, it does not prohibit the Responsible Authority from using expert technical personnel from an external agency or department. Need-to-know. Sometimes, special investigative procedures are stipulated for granting access to information in special categories. The following are members of the Policy Panel: The Technical Panel consists of the following: Initially, the representative of the Directorate for Security Policy was Lieutenant Commander Armen Chertavian (USN); and the representative to the Policy Panel from the Central Intelligence Agency, was Mr. Fred Ohm. You cannot defend a network if you do not know the devices that use it. Access to classified information stored within the computer system shall be on the basis of specific authorization from the System Security Officer to receive such information, or by automatic processes operating under his control and authority. Basically, they are intended to provide the most efficient utilization of expensive computing facilities for the widest range of users. The central processing equipment devotes its resources to servicing users in turn, resuming with each where it left off in the previous processing cycle. The other type of environment is one in which there is a mixture of uncleared users working at unprotected consoles connected to the computing central by unprotected communication circuits, and cleared users with protected consoles and protected communication lines. In the user state, any instruction that initiates an input or output operation (such as a reference to a files, that attempts to modify a register used to isolate users or to protect the Supervisor, or that attempts to suspend or modify security controls must not be executed. Internal encryption could be applied not only to the primary magnetic core storage, but also to secondary file storage. Methods developed to insure the security of resource-sharing systems are applicable to other kinds of computing systems. In such cases, it may be practical to provide direct or remote visual surveillance of the ultra-sensitive areas. Special Category (or: Special-Access Category or Compartment). However, practical limitations in the capabilities of display devices or printers may make alternative procedures necessary. If, within any level of classification, special caveat information is introduced, a new determination must be made as to whether the risk and consequences of exposure of the special caveat information to cleared but not authorized persons operating within the system warrants segregated operation of the entire system at the special caveat level. The Steering Group and its Panels also acknowledge the contributions of the many individuals who read our draft material and supplied valuable comments and suggestions. is the 90%. The details of a monitoring system with which the System Security Officer can observe activity within the security system are also not treated here. Thus, a caveat is an indicator of a special subset of information within one or more levels of classification. If an agent knows how to create an error on demand, total shutdown of a system when trouble is detected is a serious vulnerability. Additionally, manuals, guides, and various system documents must be covered. These procedures must account for and control the circulation and storage of tapes and discs; their use, reuse, and sanitization; and their classification markings and entrance to and release from the area. In the present state of computer technology, it is impossible to completely anticipate, much less specify, all hardware failure modes, all software design errors or omissions, and, most seriously, all failure modes in which hardware malfunctions lead to software malfunctions Existing commercial machines have only a minimum of redundancy and error-checking circuits, and thus for most military applications there may be unsatisfactory hardware facilities to assist in the control of hardware/software malfunctions. Program execution is controlled by the user; however, he has available to him only the limited compiler language. Or, an illegal terminal can maintain activity during periods when the legitimate user is inactive but still maintaining an open line. 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